The Abbot's Hall
The Abbot's Hall, into which we enter from the outer porch, once formed part of the monastery, and was in cluded in the building set apart for the Abbot's special use. It is of grand proportions, and strikes the eye, on first entering, by its unusual loftiness ; for it measures 57 feet 9 inches in length, 31 feet in breadth, and 57 feet in height, being thus nearly exactly as high as it is long. It retains its ancient dais, with its raised music gallery at the opposite end, and is lighted, as of yore, by its great south window, reaching nearly to the point of the gable, and three narrower ones looking west, but the windows themselves are new. The timber roof, though also modern, is a faithful copy of the original one, taken down in 1812: it is of walnut wood, grown in the park, and took six months to complete. All the oak wainscoting and carved work was, I believe, put in at the same time; replacing the plain square panels shown in Grimm's view of 1783, which were removed to one of the bed-rooms. The panelling of the dais is copied from the beautiful old arcaded tracery of the Chapter House (see p. 35) now on the outer wall of the dining-room ; and the music gallery bears the harp of Erin as an appropriate emblem. The great fire-place was also added by Sir Godfrey, and his architect posi tively asserts that there was none before his time : but I am unwilling to believe that the Abbots lived so uncomfortably. It has one of the chimney backs of wrought Sussex iron that are now considered curious and valuable, bearing the arms of the Websters, and the dogs and fire-irons (including a pair of formidable tongs) are no doubt of the same manufacture. In the centre of the mantelpiece, Sir Godfrey's coat, carved and blazoned, is again introduced ; and on the wall above (Note 26) is the first of a series of heraldic trophies that were put up by him. But the banners and shields are no longer the same. Most of the former had dropped to pieces, and what remained of them crumbled to dust at the least touch. All had to be taken down when the hall was dismantled in 1876, in preparation for the building of the new windows ; and the shields were then repainted and the banners replaced.
Over the fire-place are two banners and two shields; and between them, a copy of a suit of armour now in the Tower, and said to have been worn by Prince Henry, the son of James I. The righthand banner bears the two lions or leopards of Normandy, that, transplanted to their island home, were to become the world-famed lions of the sea; ' that on the left the gonfanon sent and blessed by the Pope, under which the victorious Normans marched to the field of Hastings (Note 27)., The right shield is the old royal coat of England quartering France ; on the left are the arms of the Abbey, copied from the seal attached to the deed of surrender.
Over the music gallery (Note28) is the trophy of the Brownes, Viscounts Montague, who held the Abbey for nearly 200 years. Their arms are on the shield to the right; to the left is the coat of Lady Lucy Nevill, daughter and co-heir of John Nevill, Marquess of Montague, and wife of the elder Sir Anthony, through whom they derived their Montague blood. The right-hand banner bears her grandmother's coat of Montague (Alice de Montague, sole heir of Thomas, Earl of Salisbury, married Richard, second son of Ralph, first Earl of Westmoreland, and was the mother of the Marquess of Montague) ; that on the left, the green eagle of the Monthermers, one of the Montague quarterings, which the Brownes bore as their crest.
The remaining trophies show the bearings of some of the principal Norman lineages that came over with the Conqueror, and served in the famous battle.
On the west side, next the music gallery.-Shield : Roger de Montgomeri, the great Earl of Shrewsbury, and the only Norman that has left his name to an English borough and shire, who led the right wing of the army. Right banner : William Fitz Osborne, Earl of Hereford, the Duke's Seneschal, who commanded a division under Roger. Left banner : William de Mohun, the Guillaume Moion le Veil' of the Roman du Rou, and the founder of a great English house. Between the windows.-Right shield : Walter Giffard, a renowned soldier, Lord of Longueville in Normandy, and Earl of Buckingham in England. Left shield : Eustace, Count of Boulogne, conspicuous in the history of the battle, the brother-in-law of the Confessor, and father of Godfrey, the first Christian King of Jerusalem. Right banner : Hugh Lupus, Earl Palatine of Chester, the nephew of the Conqueror, who bore this silver wolf's head in allusion to his name. Left banner : William d'Aubigny, or de Albini, ancestor of the Earls of Arundel From his younger brother, Nigel, sprung the illustrious house of Mowbray. Between the windows.-Shield : Alan of Brit tany, Earl of Richmond, styled Alain le Roux, who brought with him great baronage from among the Bretons.' They formed the left wing of the army, of which he had the command. Right banner : Robert de Belmont, or de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester and Mellent, who was one of the first who succeeded in breaking through the English barricades. Left banner : William /violet, Sire de Graville in Normandy, and Baron of Eye in England, to whom the Conqueror committed the dead body of Harold for burial. South wall, right side of south window.-Right banner : Richard de Bienfaite, son of Gilbert, Count of Brienne, and Lord of Clare and Tunbridge. Left banner : Gilbert of Gaunt, son of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders, whose sister, Matilda, was the Conqueror's wife. Of him came the Earls of Lincoln. Left side of south window.-Right banner : Geoffrey de Magneville, one of the proudest honours of the Côtentin ; altered by habit of speech into Man deville.' He was Earl of Essex and Hereditary Con stable of the Tower. Left banner : Hugh de Montfort, Sire de Montfort-sur-Rille, styled Hugh with the Beard,' afterwards one of the Justiciaries of England.
We also found two suits of modern armour on the dais, one brass, the other steel ; the latter remains, but the former was got rid of and replaced by a parcel-gilt German suit, bought at Nuremberg in 1874. A fine old fluted suit, said to have belonged to Otho, Duke of Bavaria, or at all events to some man six feet four inches in height-had been previously sold to Sir Charles Lamb, and is now at Beauport.
Before 1858, the whole space under the south window was filled by a gigantic representation of the Battle of Hastings, measuring thirty-one feet six by seventeen feet, that stretched across from wall to wall. This picture-now transferred to the Town Hall of Hastings- was painted by a pupil of West, named Wilkins, who, in the matter of colouring, followed but too faithfully in his master's footsteps, and represents the discovery of the dead body of Harold on the field of battle. Sir Godfrey himself-a very good-looking man-is said to have sat for the figure of William the Conqueror, who, dressed in a loose Roman tunic (in open defiance of the costume of the period), his arms and legs bare, with a steel cap and coronet over his long, flowing hair, is reining in a rampagious cream-coloured horse, and lift ing his right hand-out of which the sword has just dropped-in an attitude of surprise. Before him, a turbaned attendant holds up the dead king, and another, kneeling, offers him Harold's helmet and crown. Bishop Odo, by his side, wears a singularly-shaped cap, and rides a horse that, the celebrated stag of St. Hubert, carries a cross on his head. No wound or disfigurement is visible on Harold's face, and Edith Swanneshals is altogether ignored.
The tapestry now on the walls was, I believe, brought from the Continent by Sir Godfrey. It is very good old arras, with a tasteful border of flowers and twisted ribbons ; and comparatively little faded. Each com partment bears a knot (probably the badge of the family, by whom it was ordered) on a shield supported by two Cupids. The subjects are taken from Tasso's Gerusa lemme Liberata.'
All the stags' heads, here as elsewhere, come from Raby. The tiled floor was copied from the pavement of the ancient sacristy attached to Burgos Cathedral, of which I had brought home a sketch.
The Abbots Hall Paintings
I will commence the catalogue of the pictures with the two full-length portraits to the right of the fire place.
NAPOLEON I., by B. Lefevre, bought from one of his Marshals by the first Duke ; painted in the absurd pseudo-Roman costume that he invented for his coro nation, and on which he is said to have bestowed much time and thought. The bees (copied from the robe of one of the Carlovingian kings) were adopted as a sub stitute for the royal fleur-de-lis of France. CHARLES, SECOND DUKE OF BOLTON, signed by SirGodfrey Kneller. This Duke of Bolton, who was Lord Lieutenant of Ireland in 1717, and died in 1721, was the great grandfather of Lady Katherine Powlett, Countess of Darlington, whose portrait is in the library. A CARTHUSIAN, in the habit of his order, holding a crucifix, full-length, by Zurbaran, bought at the sale of Louis Philippe's collection. ALTAR-PIECE, formerly in the church of Savona, signed by Boccacini, with the date 1613 ; bought at Rome in 1857. It evidently refers to some legend of which I know nothing. St. Boniface, in his white habit and black hood, is seated by a rude stone table ; his right hand resting on an open book, the other raised in greeting to a female saint, who approaches between two attendant and worshipping angels. A comical pot-bellied demon, with goat's feet and bird's claws, from whose forehead a jet of flame is spouting out, rolls on the ground gnawing the chain that fastens him to the saint's chair ; the two figures standing behind it represent a lady and gentleman of the Grimaldi family -probably the donors of the picture. The background, with its serpent-like river winding to the sea, and its landscape of rocky headlands succeeding one another in the distance, recalls the lovely shores of the Corniche, from whence it was brought. HOLY FAMILY : a copy of one of Raphael's latest works, executed' for Francis I. of Frazee, and now in Ale galley of the Louvre. JAMES, FIRST EARL STANHOPE (grandson of Philip, first Earl of Chesterfield through his twelfth son, Alex ander), Commander-in-Chief of the English army in Spain during the War of Succession ; First Lord of the Treasury, and Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1717 ; Baron Stanhope of Elvaston, and Viscount Stanhope of Mahon in the island of Minorca (in honour of the capture of Port Mahon in 1708) in the same year ; and Earl Stanhope in 1718. At the battle of Almeria he had an encounter with the commander of the Spanish army, General Amezaga, and killed him in single com bat; this Pugna Equestris is commemorated upon the medal struck on the occasion of the victory. CHARLES, VISCOUNT FANE, his brother-in-law) de scended from Sir Francis Fane, third son of Francis, first Earl of Westmoreland) ; created Viscount Fane of Loughguyre in Ireland in 1718 ; married in 1708 Mary Stanhope, one of the Maids-of-Honour to Queen Anne, by whom he had one son, Charles, second Vis count, with whom the title became extinct.
At the opposite end of the hall, below the music gallery, is another picture by Zurbaran representing St. Peter Nolasco, who in 1258 founded the Order of Our Lady of Mercy for the redemption of Christian slaves, captives, and prisoners for debt. He wears suspended on his breast the shield-of-arms of Jayme el Con quistador, King of Spain, who by his special favour granted it as the perpetual badge of the community, when he placed himself at its head. This, also, belonged to Louis Phillippe's Spanish collection, and was formerly in the gallery of the Louvre.
On the right hand is the portrait of the Duke, painted by G. T. Watts, R. A.: on the left that of the Duchess, painted by L. Alma Tadema, It. A.
The windows remain to be noticed. The present ones date only from 1876, and replace some that were put up in the room of the ancient windows early in the last century, probably by Sir Thomas Webster, and filled with kaleidoscopic coloured glass by Sir Godfrey. Three of them bore his initials in flourished capitals. The three new west windows are exact copies of a fourteenth-cen tury chancel window in the old chapel at Petworth ; the south window is taken from those in the nave of Strasburg Cathedral; and in this, the painted glass in the tracery is also carefully reproduced from the original, with this single difference, that the three large circles, in stead of groups of saints, bear coats-of-arms.
The design for the rest, and the decoration of the other windows, is purely heraldic, comprising sixty armorial bearings, of which I subjoin a list and full account. I think that quarterings should never be exhibited without proof, and I therefore trust that such of my readers as do not care for genealogy, will be good enough to skip the next twelve pages.
GREAT SOUTH WINDOW
In the three large circles above are three coats :-
CLEVELAND AND VANE.
The upper one is the Duke's paternal coat; Powlett (or Paulet) the one he has borne since he took the name and arms of his grandfather, the last Duke of Bolton, in 1864 ; and Cleveland that of FitzRoy, Duke of Cleveland and Southampton, of whom he is the representative.
The twelve coats below commence the Powlett quarterings, and are to be counted from the first on the left- hand side.
REYNEY. Sir John Paulet (obit 1355) married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Thomas Reyney (Rigny) of Rowd In Wiltshire, and Shirton in Somersetshire, This coat-the Vol, or Wings conjoined in Lure, also borne by the St. Maurs, is curious as having an histori cal significance. It was first assumed by Osmond de Centville, to recall the achievement by which he pre served the liberty or life of Rollo's grandchild, the young Duke of Normandy. When Richard Sans Peur was kept in ward and bond by Louis d'Outremer, at Laon, Osmund succeeded in affecting his escape by wrapping him in a truss of forage, and thus conveying him to the stable, where he mounted his horse, and was conducted in safety to Coucy.'-Sir Francis Palgrave. CREDY. Sir John Paulet (obit 1378), son and heir, married Elizabeth, daughter and heir of William Credy, of °reedy, in Devonshire, and had two sons : Thomas, ancestor of the Earls Poulett ; and William, ancestor of the Dukes of Bolton and Marquesses of Winchester. DE LA MARE. William Paulet (obit 1435), second son, married Eleanor, daughter of Philip de la Mare, of Noney Castle, in Somersetshire, and Fisherton de la Mare, in Wiltshire, and sister and heir of Sir Elias de la Mare, of the same places ; a baronial house, of whom the founder is mentioned by Waco at the battle of Hastings. They took their name from the great fief of La Mare, near St. Opportune, in Normandy ; where their castle was built on piles in the lake still called Grand-Mare. This coat brings in HUSSEY-another baronial name. Philip de la Mare's wife was Elizabeth, sole heir of Reginald Hussey. POYNINGS. (Note29) Sir John Paulet, son and heir, mar ried Constance, daughter and co-heir of Hugh, onlyon of Sir Thomas Poynings, Lord St. John, of Basing, who died in the lifetime of his father, in 5 Henry VI. This Constance was the grandmother of the first Mar quess of Winchester. Poynings brings in a crowd of quarterings, of which I give only Criol, Crevecoeur, Abrincis, Port of Basing, St. John, De la Haye, and Fitz Piers. CRIOL. Thomas de Poynings, a Baron by writ, 1337, married Agnes, sister and co-heir of John de Criol (a baronial family in Kent, derived from Robert, Count of Eu), and was slain in the great sea-fight with the French at Sluys, in 1339. CREVECOEUR. Bertram de Criol (obit 1295), father of John de Criol, married Eleanor, daughter of Hamon de Crevecoeur, and aunt and co-heir of Robert de Creve coeur, the last Baron of Chatham. The Sire de Crievecor' is on Wace's list at Hastings, and took his name from Crevecoeur, a strong castle which still remains in the valley of the Auge. ABRINCIS, or Avranehes. Hamon de Crevecoeur married Maude, the great heiress of Folkestone.' She was the sister and sole heir of William de Abrincis, Baron of Folkestone, who died about 1331. ST. JOHN. Lucas de Poynings, second son of the first Lord Poynings, married Isabel, daughter of Hugh, second Lord St. John, of Basing, and sister and co-heir of Edmund, third Lord, who died in his minority, when the elder line of the St. Johns became extinct. He had two sisters, Margaret and this Isabel ; Margaret married John de St. Phillibert, but as her only son died an infant, Isabel was eventually left sole heir, and her husband had summons to Parliament, as Lord St. John of Basing, in 1368. William de St. John had the charge of the transport and artillery in the Con queror's army, for which reason the horse-hemes, or collars, have ever since been borne as their cognizance by his descendants. PORT. Adam de Port, Baron of Basing, in Hampshire, and great-great-grandson of the Hugh de Port of Domesday, who fought at Hastings, married Mabel, daughter of Reginald de Aureavalle, and grand child and heir (through her mother Muriel) of Roger de St. John. Their son took the name of St. John, and was the ancestor of the present family. This coat of the old Barons of Basing is thus the paternal coat of the St. Johns. DE LA HAYS. Roger de St. John married Cecily, daughter and eventual co-heir of Robert de la Haye, from whom she inherited the honour of Halnac (now Halnaker), in Sussex, bestowed upon him by Henry I. The Sire de la Haie ' from Haie-du-Puits, arrondise ment of Coutances, Normandy, is mentioned at the battle of Hastings. FITZPIERS. John de St. John, who fought in the wars of Edward I., and took the city of Bayonne by assault in 1296, married Alice, daughter of Reginald Fitz Piers. Dugdale does not mention this lady as an heiress, but as her coat appears in the sketches of the Paulet quarterings in the different ' Visitations' of Hampshire, I presume she must have been one.
The adjoining window continues the Paulet quarterings.
FIRST WEST WINDOW.
In the three upper circles are
DE ROS. VALOINES,
We begin by :
DE Ros. Sir John Paulet, son and heir of the Poynings heiress, married Eleanor, daughter and co- he of Sir Robert de Ros, of Gedney, Skelton, and
Irby, in Lincolnshire. This was the fifth successive generation of Paulets that had married heiresses. Sir Robert was third in descent from Sir Robert de Ros, Treasurer of the Exchequer in 1285, who was the second son of Robert, first Lord Ros of Hamlake, and the heiress of Belvoir, and himself married a Lincoln shire heiress. The four coats immediately below are the quarterings brought in by de Ros-Espec, Trusbut, Albini, and Constable. ESPEC. Peter de Ros, a baron of Holderness (of, a Norman family of some note, that took its name from Ros, near Caen, and settled in England, at the Conquest), in the time of Henry I., married Adeline, sister and sole heir of Walter Espec, the famous Baron of Helmsley, who, when his only son broke his neck by a fall from his horse, vowed to make Christ his heir,' and founded three great abbeys, at Kirkham, Rievaulx, and Warden, on which he bestowed the principal part of his estates. TRUSBUT. Everard de Ros (obit about 1186), grandson and heir, married Rose, daughter of William Trusbut, Baron of Wartre, in Holderness, and, as her brothers and sisters all died without posterity, eventually his sole heir. This coat is generally given like the preceding one, Gu. three water bougets Ar. (the Trois bouts d'eau being a pun upon the name), and the De Ros's are said to have acquired it through this marriage. But on the tomb in Hunmanby Church, in Yorkshire, under which Everard de Ros and Rose Trusbut lie buried, the shield-of-arms bears : Gu. three water bougets Ar, impaling Az. a Catherine wheel, as here. ALBINI. Robert de Ros, first Lord of Ros of Hamlake (obit 1285) his great-grandson, married Isabel, daughter and heir to William de Albini, Lord of Bel voir, in Leicestershire, who brought him all the princely possessions of her ancestor, Robert de Todeni, who first gave to the stately castle he built soon after the Con quest its name of Belvoir (' fair view '). CONSTABLE. Sir Robert de Ros, second son, married Elena, or Ella, daughter and heir of Sir Robert Constable, of Gedney, in Lincolnshire. This coat, though borne by one of the house of Burton-Constable, is, in reality, that of Fulk d'Oyri, Lord of Gedney temp. Henry III., a man of large possessions in the county, whose daughter and co-heir Sir Robert had married. The other sister was the wife of Egidius de G ousell, and both sons-in-law assumed the arms of d'Oyri, Gousell adding a canton Ermine. (In upper circle.) WILLOUGHBY. John Paulet, second Marquess of Winchester (obit 1576), married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heir of Robert Willoughby, Lord Broke. The quarterings brought in by this lady fill the remainder of the window, though I only give a small selection from those drawn in 'Edmond's Peerage.' ORREBY. Sir Robert de Willoughby (one of the insurgent barons temp. Henry III.), married Margaret, daughter and heir of John de Orreby. BEKE. Sir William de Willoughby, son and heir, who went with Prince Edward to the Holy Land, married Alioe, daughter of John, Lord Belie of Eresby, and co-heir to her brother, Walter, the last Lord. This was a branch of the great Norman house of Bec-Crespin, of whom one, Turstin Fitz Rou, was the Duke of Normandy's standard-bearer at Hastings. ROSCELINE. Sir John, first Lord Willoughby de Eresby (obit 1350), married Joan, sister and co-heir of Sir Thomas Roscelin. UFFORD. Sir John, second Lord Willoughby de Eresby (obit 1373), son and heir, married Cecilie, daughter of Robert de Ufford, first Earl of Suffolk, and co-heir of her brother, William, second and last Earl, who dropped down dead on the steps of the House of Commons in 1381. (In the third circle above). VALOINES. Sir Robert de Ufford, a Baron by writ, 1308, married Cecily, daughter and co-heir of Sir Robert de Valoines, Lord of Walsham ; descended from Peter de Valoines, Baron of Orford, in Suffolk, in the time of William the Conqueror. NORWICH. Robert, second Baron Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, 1336, married Margaret, sister of Sir Thomas Norwich, and eventually sole heir to her grand-nephew, John, second and last Lord Norwich, obit 1374. NEVILL. Sir Thomas Willoughby, third son of Robert, fourth Lord Willoughby de Eresby, married Elizabeth, daughter of John, Lord Nevin of Raby, and eventually sole heir of his second marriage with the I heiress of Latimer. Both the other children-a daugh ter, Margaret, and a son, summoned to Parliament as Baron Latimer, in 1404, died s,p. LATIMER. John, Lord Nevin of Raby (heir male to the Sovereign Saxon Earls of Northumberland, and descended in the female line from Geoffrey de; Nevill, Admiral of the Conqueror's fleet), married Elizabeth, daughter and sole heir of William, fourth and last Lord Latimer, a famous soldier in the wars of Edward III. This coat is exactly copied from one put up by this Lord Nevill on one of the gate towers of Raby. CHAMPERNOUN. Sir Robert Willoughby, first Lord Willoughby de Broke (obit 1502), married Blanche, daughter and sole heir of Sir John Champer noun, of Bees Ferrara (a branch of the old Devonshire house of Clist-Champernoun, originally called Campo Arnulphi). He claimed the barony of Latimer in right of his great-grandmother, Elizabeth, Lady Willough by, but did not succeed, and was summoned to Parliament, as Lord Willoughby de Broke, in 1492.
SECOND WEST WINDOW.
In the three upper circles are
DE LA LEKE ..........................PEARSAL
three of the Vane quarterings. This window and the next give the Duke's descent, from father to son, with the intermarriages, from Howell-ap-Vane, the ancestor of his family. The coats are to be counted from the first of the four lower ones, beginning at the left-hand side.
HOWEL-AP-VANE ; living in Monmouthshire, ante- cedently to the Conquest. In all the Herald's Visita- tions these three gauntlets are given as his coat, but it has been said that they were never borne till after the battle of Poictiers, in 1356, where Sir Henry Vane claimed to have assisted in taking John, King of France, prisoner ; who, in token of his captivity, pulled off his right gauntlet, which he gave to Sir Henry, who adopted it as his cognizance.' I have drawn them as they were borne by the Duke's father and grand father, as well as by Lord Westmoreland, the elder branch of the family ; but I believe they should be, as they are figured in Guilliem, showing the palm instead of the back of the hand, and consequently with the position of the thumb reversed. VANE AND POWYS. Griffith-ap-Howell Vane, son and heir, married a Welsh princess, Lettice, daughter of Bledwyn-ap-Kynwyn, Prince of Powis (slain 1073), who was, by usurpation, sovereign of North and South Wales. VANE AND EDWYN-AP-MEREDITH. Euyon or Ivon Vane, surnamed the Fayre,' married, Engharard (Katherine), daughter of Owen-ap-Edwyn-ap-Meredith. VANE AND KYNHAM-AP-MEREDITH. Jenn (John) Vane, son and heir, married Gwenllyan (Juliana), daughter of Kynham-ap-Meredith. VANE AND LLOYD. Henry Vane, son and heir, married Joan, daughter of David Lloyd, of a Pem brokeshire family. VANE AND DE LA DENE. Henry Vane, son and heir, married Margaret, daughter and heir of Sir John de la Dene. As this Margaret was an heiress, her coat is placed on an escutcheon of pretence. VANE AND HARLEY. John Vane, son and heir, married a daughter of Sir Richard Harley. VANE AND DE LA LEKE. Sir Henry Vane, son and heir, knighted by the Black Prince at the battle of Poictiers, remained abroad in the prince's service, and married a Frenchwoman, Grace, daughter and heir of Sir Stephen de la Leke. VANE AND ST. OWEN. John Vane, son and heir, married a daughter and heir of Martin St. Owen (from St. Ouen, near Caen, mentioned in Domesday) ; grand son of Sir Gilbert St. Owen, by Elizabeth, daughter and heir of Robert FitzEllis, Lord of Leckland. This coat is figured in Guillim as a forme of bearing, of very rare use ; ' for this family, either from affection, or for some lands which they anciently held of the house of Clare, may seeme to have assumed the Armes of the said Clare in the dexter point of the field.' The arms of FitzEllis appear on the next window. VANE AND PEMBRIDGE. Richard Vane, son and heir, married Ellen, daughter of Sir John Pembridge. VANE AND TRAFFORD. Henry Vane, son and heir, married Elizabeth, daughter of Peter Trafford. VANE AND PEARSALL. Henry Vane, second son, eventual heir, married Isabella, daughter and heir of Henry Pearsall.
THIRD WEST WINDOW
In the three upper circles are three more quarterings.
FITZ ELLIS. PULTENEY.
The coats below continue the descent.
VANE AND DARKENEL. John Vane, of Haden, Kent, third son and eventual heir, married Isabella, daughter of John Darkenel. He was the first who spelt his name Fane, as it still continues to be by the Earls of Westmoreland and their branches (who descend from his second son, Richard Fane, of Tudeley), but as the original spelling was resumed by his descendants in the fourth generation, I have not varied it here.
VANE AND HAULT. John Vane, of Hadlowe, fourth son, married Joan, daughter and co-heir of Sir Edward Hault, or Haute (a family seated at the Mote, Ightham, in Kent, as early as the reign of Henry II). Sir Edward's grandmother was Margaret Widvile, sister to Richard, Earl Rivers, and aunt of Elizabeth Widvile, the queen of Edward IV.
VANE AND WHITE. Henry Vane, of Hadlowe, son and heir, married Elizabeth, daughter of Henry White, of Christchurch, in Hampshire. He was at- tainted and committed to the Tower, in 1554, for taking part in Wyatt's insurrection, but pardoned and released a few months afterwards.
VANE AND TWISDEN. Henry Vane, of Hadlowe, son and heir, married Margaret, daughter of Roger Twisden, of East Peckham, county Kent.
VANE AND DARCY. Sir Henry Vane, knight son and heir, married Frances, daughter and co-heir of Thomas Darcy, of Tolleshunt-Darcy, in Essex (by Camilla, daughter of Vincent Guicciardini, a descen dant of the Florentine historian). He resumed the old name of Vane, which has always been borne by his posterity. He was first Cofferer, and then principal Secretary of State for life to Charles I., and in 1640, one of the Regents of the Kingdom appointed to take care for the safety' of the Queen, Prince of Wales, and the other royal children. In 1626 he bought of the Crown, Raby Castle and Barnard Castle, in the county of Durham (forfeited by the attainder of the last Nevin, Earl of Westmoreland).
VANE AND 'WRAY. Sir Henry Vane, Knight, son and heir, styled ' the Younger, married' Frances, daughter of Sir Christopher Wray, Baronet, of Went worth, county Lincoln, Lord Chief Justice of England: He was Governor of Massachusetts New England, in' 1636 ; and Treasurer of the Navy during the Common wealth ; refusing, however, the emoluments of the office, then worth £30,000 a year, of which he would only take £2,000. On the Restoration, though included in the full pardon granted by the Declaration of Buda to all except the regicides, he was found guilty of high treason, and beheaded on Tower Hill, in 1662.
VANE AND HOLLES. Christopher Vane, fifth son and eventual heir, married Lady Elizabeth Holies, daughter of Gilbert, third Earl of Clare, and sister and co-heir of John, Duke of Newcastle ; and was created Baron Barnard, of Barnard Castle, in 1699.
VANE AND RANDYLL. Gilbert Vane, second Lord Barnard, son and heir, married Mary, daughter of Morgan Randy'', of Chilworth, in Surrey .
VANE AND FITZ ROY. Henry Vane, third Lord Barnard, son and heir, created Earl of Darlington in 1754, married Lady Grace Fitz Roy, eldest daughter of Charles, first Duke of Cleveland and Southampton (the son of Charles II., by Barbara Villiers) ; and eventually sole heir to her brother, the second and last Duke. Her mother, the Duchess of Cleveland, was Anne Pulteney, aunt of William Pulteney, Earl of Bath : and it was in right of this lady that her grand son, on the failure of all other heirs, succeeded, in 1805, to the whole of the Pulteney property, and became their sole representative. Their coat is given above.
VANE AND LOWTHER. Henry Vane, second Earl of Darlington, son and heir, married Margaret, daughter of Robert Lowther, and sister and co-heir of James, first Earl of Lonsdale.
VANE AND POWLETT. William Henry Vane,
third Earl of Darlington, son and heir, created Mar quess of Cleveland in 1827, and Duke of Cleveland in 1833: married Lady Katherine Powlett, daughter and co-heir of Harry, sixth and last Duke of Bolton, and also co-heir to the Barony of St. John, of Basing.
POWLETT AND STANHOPE. Harry George Vane, fourth Duke of Cleveland, third son and eventual heir, married Lady Catherine Lucy Wilhelmine Stanhope, only daughter of Philip Henry, fourth Earl Stanhope, and widow of Lord Dalmeny, and assumed the sur name and arms of Powlett, by Royal license, in 1864. The three swords in pile are what is termed in heraldy, acmes parlantes, or illusive arms ; for the sword was the distinctive mark of St. Paul.
The whole of the glass was executed, from my draw ings, by Messrs. Powell and Son.
The Monks Prophesy
It was in this hall that, as the story goes, Sir Anthony Browne, on first taking possession of the Abbey, in 1538, was holding his house warming with great rejoic ings and festivity, when a monk suddenly made his appearance in the midst of the guests, strode up to the dais, and pronounced a solemn malediction upon the spoliator of the Church. He warned Sir Anthony that the curse would cleave to his remotest posterity, and foretold the special doom that was to be their temporal punishment. By fire and water,' he cried, your line shall come to an end, and perish out of the land ' It is remarkable how faithfully this prophecy was re membered in the county, though it did not come to pass for more than 250 years, and long after Battle Abbey had passed out of the possession of Sir Anthony's heirs. But the curse of fire and water followed them to Cow- dray, and wrought the appointed doom at last. In the autumn of 1793, the eighth Lord Montague, then only 24 years old, was drowned in the Rhine while attempt. ing to shoot the falls of Laufenburg in a small boat. He had been on a boating expedition up the river with Mr. Sedley Burdett (the elder brother of Sir Francis) ; and as both he and friend were experienced watermen, they resolved to try this hazardous experiment. No one could dissuade them from the venture, though the people of the place all tried to do so ; and, at the last moment, as they were stepping into their boat, Lord Montague's servant even seized the collar of his coat to hold him back, but he wrenched himself free, and sprung in. The boat was upset in the rapids, and they disappeared together in a whirlpool, near the Oelberg (where the Rhine is said to be 100 feet deep), and were never seen again. Nor could their bodies-though long searched for-ever be recovered.(Note30)
The messenger that carried these sad tidings to Eng land crossed another hurrying out to bring the poor young Viscount the first news of an irreparable calamity that had befallen him at home. On the night of Sep tember 24th, 1793, Cowdray House was burnt to the ground. It was one of the stateliest homes in England: a beautiful Tudor mansion, built by the Earl of South ampton, in the time of Henry VIII.: and full of pictures and valuables of every kind, that all perished in the conflagration. This double catastrophe was at once put to the account of the accursed inheritance' of Cowdray ; and Croker writes, in 1831: When I visited the ruins of Cowdray, some twenty years ago, I was reminded (in addition to older stories) that the curse of both fire and water had fallen on Cowdray ; its noble owner, Browne, Viscount Montague, the last male of his race, having been drowned in the Rhine, in October, 1793, a few days after the destruction of Cowdray ; and the good folks of the neighbourhood did not scruple to prophecy that it would turn out a fatal inheritance. At that period, the present possessor, Mr. Poyntz, who had married Lord Montague's sister and heiress, had two sons, who seemed destined to inherit Cowdray ; but on the 7th of July, 1815, these young gentlemen boating off Bognor with their father, on a very fine day, the boat was unaccountably upset, and the two youths perished ; and thus were once more fulfilled the fore bodings of superstition.' Mrs. Poyntz, who is said to have had a superstitious dread of going on the water, had declined accompanying them, and as the evening approached, was sitting at the window watching them on their return home. They were close in shore, when a sudden squall struck the sail and capsized the boat ; and the unhappy mother saw her two sons drowned literally before her eyes.
The fatal inheritance' then came to be divided between her three daughters : Frances Isabella, Lady Clinton ; Elizabeth Georgiana, Countess Spencer ; and Isabella, Marchioness of Exeter ; and Cowdray was sold to the Earl of Egmont in 1843.
'O Garden, blossoming out of English blood !'-Tennyson,
The climate of Battle, warm in summer, and mild and moist in winter, is exceptionably favourable to all kinds of plants, while the close neighbourhood of the sea gives a strong dash of salt to the air, which seems to be as good for them as it is for ourselves. It likewise tempers the severity of the cold, and tends to lessen its continuance, for though (on one or two occasions only) 16 degrees of frost have been registered here, it never lasts for more than a few days together, and great difficulty is generally found in filling the ice-house. The snow, tco, though it sometimes falls very heavily, never lies long; yet, alas in most eases long enough to damage very considerably the over-weighted boughs of the evergreens.
The only garden I found, in 1858, was the Fountain Garden, so named from the old stone fountain that once adorned Sir Anthony Browne's pleasance ' (see p. 31). It comprises only about one-third of what was his garden, and was first laid out in flower beds by Lady Webster, in 1852. It was here that, in 1864, I first tried wintering camellias out of doors, in a bed that had been scooped out (at some time or other) from the south yew walk, and was then full of rhododendrons. I had grave doubts as to the success of the experiment,(Note31) and did not therefore wish to spend much money on my intended victims, so I got over from Ghent 100 plants, of all the different kinds, for eighty francs- cheap enough, but I must confess they proved even smaller than I had expected. For the first two winters there was a great ado of protecting them with matting; but the baby camellias proved quite equal to taking care of themselves, and grew so vigorously that the bed had very soon to be thinned out. It has now only sixteen of the original number; the rest are dispersed about the grounds; the tallest (measuring above eight feet) being planted along a walk that follows, the precinct wall. But there were not enough for both sides, and I had to import fifteen large plants that had outgrown the greenhouse at Raby, and were far from having enjoyed the same hardy training. They had always been petted and kept under glass, and when they were turned out to take their chance with the rest, the gardener pathetically gave them up for lost. Yet they stood the frost as bravely as if they had been accustomed to it. They bear being transplanted equally well; and even if they appear to die, strong young shoots are sure to come up from the roots. But they will not abide either sun or wind.
The warmest part of the garden is the Lower Terrace, which, sheltered by its high buttressed wall, fronting the south, forms a complete sun-trap, where many greenhouse plants flourish without any sort of protec tion through the winter months. The Mandevillea sua volens (named from the diplomatist who first imported it from South America, and still grown in a stove-house at Kew) is sheeted in early summer with its snowy waxen flowers, succeeded by long seed pods ; the Staun tonia latifolia (brought from China by Sir George Staun ton) spreads far and wide, perfumes the whole terrace with its orange-flower scent, and is covered with pink fruit later in the year. We had the pride and pleasure of sending a specimen to Veitch's nursery, v here they Could not at all make out what it was. The Physianthus albens (unfortunately killed by the hard winter of 1875- 76) also bore fruit freely; and as the fertilisation of both plants is carried on by insects, it is curious to find it as successful under totally different conditions here, as in their own far-distant home. The Coronilla glauca flowers in mid-winter, and I have often seen its delicate golden blossoms laden with snow ; the variegated Veronicas, on the other hand, put out their blue and mauve spikes only till the frost comes, and then droop and often lose their leaves. The Brazilian coral plant (Erythina crista galli), though it dies down in winter, throws up mag nificent flower spikes to the height of five or six feet. The Poinciana Gillesii, or flower-fence, of Barbadoes, here does not deserve its name, for, though it grows freely enough, it never flowered but once. The Aloysia citriadora (sweet-scented verbena) becomes a tree (though a deciduous one) sixteen feet high. The Solanum jasminoides grows prodigiously : but has been twice killed in exceptionally severe winters. The Passiflora cærulea also suffers occasionally, but not to the same degree. The Tacsonias will not stand frost at all. The Fuchsias are capricious ; I have grown Bank's Glory, Wonderful, Venus de' Medici, 4c., with more or less success, but never permanently ; sometimes when covered with flow- ers, in fine autumn weather, they suddenly sicken and die; sometimes the wood is cankered with the frost, and sometimes killed to the ground. The old Riccartonii seedling (first grown in Sir W. Gibson Craig's garden, in Midlothian) is perfectly hardy, and grows to a great size ; some of the specimens I have were cuttings sent to me by the late Duke of Hamilton from the Isle of Arran, where these fuchsias attain the dimensions of lilac trees. Ladizabala biternata, Ceano hus azureum, Metrosiderus semperflorens, and Escallonia Montevidensis, all do well. Some other tender plants require the protection of a few spruce boughs in front; such are Rhyncospermum jasminoides, with its deliciously fragrant little flowers, Sofiya meterophylla, Aralia papy.
rifera (from which rice-paper is manufactured), and the oleander, which puts out its lovely pink flowers as early out of doors as in the greenhouse. Both Lapageria rosea and Lapageria alba also flower and pod.
All kinds of evergreens are exceptionally luxuriant. The laurestinus flower so abundantly throughout the winter months, that I have known short-sighted people ask whether the boughs were not covered with snow; the bays and laurels sow themselves as freely as weeds ; and the largest arbutus I ever yet saw grows by the gates of the stable-yard ; but it got broken by the wind, and had to be cut back. The magnolia, myrtle, and Japan loquat-tree (Eribotrya japonica), grow magnificently but I have never succeeded in flowering the latter. Besides the common myrtle, I have Eugenia ugni, and Eugenia apiculatum ; the birds delight in their berries (especially the last), sowing them broadcast all over the place, and I am constantly meeting with young seedlings coming up in unexpected places. The sweet olive (Olea fragrans) does not thrive well; but the still sweeter Daphne Indica succeeds perfectly, and flowers more freely than under glass. Several kinds of Himalayan rhododendrons (R. ciliatum, Dalhousii, Edgeworthii and Wightii ), and a whole bed full of different green house azaleas, remain out all the winter; and I have also Photinia serrulata, with its bright crimson shoots; Eloeagnus reflexes (which I first saw in King Leopold's villa on the Lake of Como), the gold and silver Euonymus, Aralia Sieboldii, &c. Some young aloes, sent to me by Lord Ilchester from Abbotsbury, on the Dorset- shire coast, where they have long been grown and flowered in the open air, were planted out a few years ago, and I have still three of them ; the finest was killed in the winter before last. I have just attempted the same with two Australian palms, a Chinese palmetto, and an orange tree.(Note32) Of tender bulbs, I have Tritonia, eurea and the African Lily (Agapanthus umbellatum) in the border on the Lower Terrace; and of greenhouse ferns, Woodwardia radicans, Cyrtomium falcatum, and Pteris serrulata have been wintered out of doors.
Many are the attempts I have made to grow Alpine plants, both in Harold's Chapel, and in a rock border in front of the shrubbery that skirts the orchard wall. I learnt Robinson's Wild Garden' very nearly by heart, and wrote out a long list of plants, with excruci ating names, which were to be procured for me by the puzzled nurserymen. They were hunted up and brought together from different quarters, and sedulously planted out, under my own eye, in the right soils and places. But they nearly all died. Many of them, accustomed on their own mountains to be buried under a warm winter-cushion of snow, felt the frost severely ; and almost all were browsed upon by the snails till their plane knew them no more.' Sometimes, as in the case of the tufted mountain primroses and the lovely Gentiana verna, these greedy creatures spared the foliage, but devoured the flowers.
Round the small pond near the garden gate grow the New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax) the beautiful silver-striped reed (Arundo donax variegata), and, both the Himalayan and Chinese bamboo. Some plants of the latter, however, died mysteriously last year after they had flowered ; and I was told, to my surprise, that this was by no means an uncommon case. Of the ccnifers I have planted (and I have tried many) those that grow fastest are the Pinus Insignis and Californian cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa), which shoot up with prodigious rapidity. A group of young stone pines is also flourishing and becoming tall: and, generally speaking, all kinds of pines do remarkably well.